AVRdude programming header setup
1 (MISO)\tTPIDATA\t1 2 (VTref)\tVcc\t5 3 (SCK)\t TPICLK\t3 4 (MOSI)\t\t 5 (RESET)\t/RESET\t6 6 (GND)\t GND\t2
Problem: My ATtiny4/5/9/10 reads out fine, but any attempt to program it (through TPI) fails. Instead, the memory retains the old contents.
Solution: Mind the limited programming supply voltage range of these devices. In-circuit programming through TPI is only guaranteed by the datasheet at Vcc = 5 V.
STK 600 also supports TPI